Radiative Transfer Modeling
Radiative transfer modeling (RTM) is a widely used technique for understanding and predicting the interactions between electromagnetic radiation and matter in various applications, including agriculture. One of the most used RTM models in vegetation remote sensing is the PROSPECT model, which simulates leaf optical properties and has been used for various applications. Below is an RTM simulator based on the prospect model (developed by Damian Oswald):
The theory of RTM involves simulating the propagation of electromagnetic radiation through a medium, such as vegetation, and quantifying the interactions between the radiation and the medium. This process considers parameters such as the medium's optical properties, the radiation wavelength, and the angle of light incidence. The output of an RTM model is typically a set of radiative transfer equations that describe how radiation is absorbed, transmitted, and scattered by the medium.
Over the past few decades, RTM has become a powerful tool for analyzing agricultural remote sensing data. Advances in computer hardware and software and improvements in the accuracy and resolution of remote sensing data have facilitated this. RTM has been used to predict vegetation biophysical parameters such as leaf area index, chlorophyll content, protein, and water content, which are essential for monitoring crop health and predicting yield.
The applications of RTM in agriculture are diverse, ranging from mapping crop growth and development to predicting crop yield and quality. Proximity sensing techniques such as hyperspectral imaging and field spectroscopy can provide detailed information about vegetation properties at the leaf and canopy levels. In contrast, remote sensing techniques such as satellite and airborne sensors can provide large-scale coverage of crop fields.
One advantage of RTM over pure empirical and data-driven approaches is its ability to provide a physical understanding of the underlying processes governing the interactions between radiation and matter. This advantage enables RTM to deliver accurate predictions of vegetation properties even under conditions where empirical relationships may break down. RTM's ability to provide a physical understanding of light interaction with plants makes it a valuable complement to artificial intelligence for a consistent and reliable plant monitoring practice.